TT Scheme Problems & Solutions
1 Regrettably, the TT Scheme does not always work as well as it should; a number of malfunctions have been identified and these can be ascribed respectively to the trainee, to the system and to external factors.
2 It is a tribute to the care and competence employed in the selection of trainees that it is very rare indeed for Scheme malfunction to occur because of deficiencies in the abilities of a trainee. By far the most common cause of a trainee malfunction arises from a premature awareness that his career is being purposefully shaped by others. This is particularly problematical in the early stages of Scheme operations, before the trainee has reaped and appreciated its benefits and rewards. Usually, once the difficulty has been identified, corrective measures can be taken - such as by giving an immediate reward to facilitate acceptance by the trainee of the helping hand nature of the Scheme.
3 There are, however, two circumstances in which problems arising from trainee awareness cannot readily be corrected. The first is when the trainee does not make it known to the Committee, despite the many links installed in his social groupings, that he is aware of the Scheme's operations. Regrettably, such a trainee usually carries out a clandestine observation of' the Scheme by noting, deducing and writing up his perceptions from the receiving end of the TT operations. The knowledge of the Scheme and the attitude towards it thus generated in the trainee often give rise some considerable time later to quite unpredictable and uncharacteristic behaviour. Not unexpectedly, the unusual behaviour may be misinterpreted by the trainer and the Committee; accordingly an inappropriate response may be made and, one such response leading to another, eventually there may be an irredeemable mismatch between the trainee and the particular TT Scheme designed around him.
4 The second area of difficulty is when the premature awareness is accompanied by ethical, moral or similar types of reservations on the part of the trainee. The trainee may entertain notions about, say, privacy or freedom and this could lead to some antipathy towards the Scheme or parts of it. Again, countermeasures can be invoked to persuade the trainee that such notions are relative rather than absolute and that overwhelmingly the TT Scheme is beneficial to the nation whatever the personal feelings of the trainee may be. This approach coupled to the advancement of a reward can save the situation but it must be admitted that it is not unknown for a trainee to remain dissatisfied with the Scheme and to such an extent that no further progress can be made along the lines planned.
5 Scheme malfunctions can also arise from the Total Training system itself. Some are due to the normal inefficiencies of any managed system, such as accidental errors in reporting, relaxed supervision and, occasionally, a mismatch between the requirements of the Scheme and the competencies of its officers and of personnel in the agencies it employs. However, the most serious internal cause of malfunction is when one or more of the people involved in the operation of the Scheme disagree with its aim or with the choice of trainee and allow such variance to colour their judgement or affect their work on behalf of the Committee. This type of breakdown in system integrity is, of course, a normal hazard in all worthwhile complex enterprises and every reasonable precaution is taken to prevent its occurrence or ameliorate its effects in all TT Schemes.
6 By far the most important sources of problems with TT operations lie outside the Scheme altogether. Difficulties of external origin range from straightforward, predictable and correctable to complex, unexpected and intractable.
7 The most straightforward external difficulty occurs when the Office intended for the trainee is radically altered or disappears altogether. In the former case the programme can be changed to meet the new needs but consideration must also be given to the possibility of switching to another trainee. The deletion of the Office itself or the change to another trainee puts the Committee in the position of deciding what to do with a surplus partly-developed high flier. An intermediate position arises when the designated Office is unexpectedly filled by a ‘natural’ process, with consequent delay in installing the trainee as planned. Operations may be undertaken to minimise the delay but the time may come when the surplus to requirements issue has to be considered in this situation also.
8 In one or two special cases a serious malfunction can arise from a systematic undermining of the relevant Committee's plans and operations. In one particular instance the organisation responsible for disruption which proved highly damaging to the Committee's purposes and to the trainee concerned was designated as The Group; this generic title will be used to describe all organisational units working against the Committees though clearly the actual unit involved may vary from one TT Scheme to another.
9 A Group operating to negate the work of a Committee or to divert the trainee to its own purposes - for, say, political or economic reasons - would first and foremost seek an informant on the Committee if not actual membership of it. Similarly it would seek to infiltrate the operating agencies. If the Office for which the Committee is carrying out the training warrants it, the Group will consider it worthwhile to set up its own network of affiliates and operatives and tap into communications by a parallel arrangement. In these ways the highly personal identification codes of bone fide participants in a TT Scheme may be acquired or deduced by the Group and used to send spurious information, with damaging effects on the Committee's programme. Similarly the Group may use the information gained from infiltration to divert the trainee by matching the Committee's moves with operations of its own designed to secure compliance of the trainee to the Group's requirements. The Committee is always watchful for signs of Group activities and is always disposed to take appropriate corrective actions.
10 There is another external malfunction of far greater concern than any of the others, namely the interference by agencies of unfriendly foreign countries in the operations of the TT Scheme. It is a reasonable assumption that the powers that be in such countries would be very interested in the development of trainees for positions of leadership in U.K. affairs. Moreover, the Total Training activities having come to their attention, it is very likely that they would seek to divert the Schemes to their own purposes..
11 It has been claimed that it was the USSR which originated the TT method and that it operates many such Schemes worldwide with a view to placing selected nationals into positions of leadership in various countries who though indigenous are under USSR control. It has even been suggested that Russia has operated some TT Schemes trans-nationally with a view to placing manipulable people in critical international leadership positions. Furthermore it has been asserted that the idea for the U.K. Scheme did not arise spontaneously in the context of the Churchill management course but was planted by the KGB through an intermediary who attended the course.
Clearly, with the now well-known leakages between the Security Services of the two countries, the question of the true origin is somewhat academic. At whatever stage the USSR entered the picture there is little doubt that it would have some involvement in TT operations which may range from passive observation through seeking to exert some influence to endeavouring to "capture" the trainee for its own purposes - or failing any of these to wreck the programme altogether. It is important to note that these USSR-directed activities are indistinguishable from those of The Group. It must not, however, be assumed that they are one and the same. There is no doubt that there is a purely U.K. submerged Group and moreover it must be said that the USSR has very probably on occasion been made the scapegoat when U.K. Group operations - whether of the Left or of the Right politically - have gone wrong.
THE TC SCHEME
12 When for reasons already described a trainee becomes surplus to requirements a radical change in programme takes place. First, the operations are handed over to a special unit; this has become known as The Squad, after jocular reference was made to it as a demolition squad. Contrary to the popular view in training circles the Committee is not disbanded but is meant to continue with a watching brief on the basis of reports, made by the Squad, which concentrate on strategy rather than detailed operations. Secondly, the Total Training Scheme is converted to a Total Control (TC) Scheme; a discarded trainee could, given a free reign, inflict a great deal of damage on the TT movement as a whole and it is thus very important that the modicum of control exercised during the training process should give way to complete control until the attributes developed have been neutralised and the trainee put into a safe ‘parking place’.
13 The conversion of operations from the TT to the TC mode is quite easy. The information collected and stored about the erstwhile trainee's groupings, activities, interests, likes, aversions, etc., etc., provides the basic material by which control can be exercised. Also, the affiliates in situ in most of the ‘controlee's’ groupings can serve both as monitors and actuators in a control system. Moreover the operatives available through agencies can be used. for controlling just as easily as they were for training.
14 Not all affiliates can be converted from a training to a controlling function. Of course, many need not know that the Scheme and their role within it has changed - for example observation can take place as before but without affiliate awareness of the new use to which the information is being put. To a lesser extent affiliates can be asked to carry out actions, as distinct from mere observation, which are represented as required for training purposes but which are in fact designed and used for controlling. Where however the disguise of purpose is not practicable the affiliate's cooperation in the control of the former trainee will need to be secured. An affiliate unhappy about the changeover must not only be replaced but neutralised by one or more of the many means available. Sometimes it is expedient that the replacement is a member of one of the agencies who can therefore be regarded as a continuous operative, combining a function within the Squad's TC Scheme with other duties.
15 After the switch to the TC mode the next step is to halt the build-up of the former trainee and then in due course to reverse it. Thus progress in the planned direction is inhibited, for example by applying the negative forms of the processes by which the trainee's career was being advanced. Thus general discouragement can be induced by arranging for the continual delivery of NIPS where previously there have been PEPS. A more sophisticated method of blocking progress is to impose conditions for advancement which the Squad can make sure cannot be met - for instance by requiring that promotion in the former trainee's work situation should, on good democratic grounds, have the unanimous consent of his peer group and then arrange for one or more affiliates in that group to dissent at the appropriate times.
16 A further important step is to disband as much of the network as is appropriate. Thus the ‘career contacts’ must be taken out of circuit - they can, for example, be neutralised by bringing about a move of their home from proximity with the former trainee to another part of the country perhaps coupled to a dropping of high flier status in their own employing organisations. There would also have to be a determining and closing of the loophole organisations - the so-called escape outlets - to which the trainee might describe his experiences and gain their support in investigating and making known the processes he has encountered. Ways of ensuring that disclosure to these bodies does not result in damage to the TT programmes vary but the two most commonly invoked are:-
(a) to give a fairly accurate picture of what is going on coupled with the injunction ‘note but do not intervene’,
(b) to give very misleading information on what is taking place and making an apparently helpful but in fact highly prejudicial request that the former trainee should be deflected to another organisation which is either of itself unsuitable or is under the control of the Squad.
17 In an allied process the former trainee is separated from as many as possible of the social groupings in which and through which development has taken place. Expectations will have been built up around the former trainee and if contact is allowed to be maintained some very awkward questions could arise. Thus the Squad may seek to move the trainee to another town, localise his activities where previously they have been national, change his interests to other fields and divert him to a radically different type of occupation.. At the interpersonal level isolation from potentially hazardous contacts can usually be obtained by the judicious delivery of ‘off-putting’ messages, akin to the severance messages used to divert the trainee during the TT operations.
18 There are some practices engaged in by the Squad of which the Committee most definitely does not approve. For example there have been programmes of communications aimed at inducing a feeling of paranoia and at establishing a reputation for that condition. An allied technique is to mount a ‘reverse brainwash’ campaign aimed at convincing the former trainee that he has imagined all the happenings. A much more sophisticated programme involves the separate selling of the trainee to several new groupings (for example a company, an industry, a public service, a religious organisation and a political party and even, where appropriate, more than one of these) as a worthwhile person to develop. The Squad monitors and coordinates progress in each grouping or network, setting a deadline for fruition in each which present to the apparently re-adopted trainee as a sequence of promising dates. The trick then is to sabotage each programme in turn as it is about to mature and in some cases at the point of collapse, when the trainee's hopes and expectations are being dashed, to offer an inducement for the trainee to move in a quite different direction to any of those intimated. In this way the ‘ball’ is kept in play until time or health runs out or the trainee is diverted to a completely safe ‘parking place’. Another example of an objectionable practice by the Squad is the arranging of activities or events specifically designed to generate false or misleading information to go into the information store on the former trainee and to be selectively quoted to the supervising Committee in justification of the unwarranted types of actions engaged in by the Squad. A final example of unacceptable behaviour is when the Squad attacks or endeavours to undermine the erstwhile trainee in the values he holds dear - such as fidelity, integrity and moderation.
19 The Committee endeavours to ensure that the Squad acts fairly in placing the discarded trainee in a position which he will enjoy and at the same time will cause no problems for the TT movement as a whole. Ideally this position is one of congenial obscurity, i.e. one in which the person concerned will be satisfied with his lot and be inhibited from publicising his experiences. However it must be said that even when the ideal placement is achieved it is prudent to maintain a residual surveillance so that any signs of restlessness can be detected at the earliest stage and appropriate corrective actions taken.